Handbook of Prevention and Treatment of the Pneumonia Caused by the Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) PDF Download

Handbook of Prevention and Treatment of the Pneumonia Caused by the Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

  Source: “Wedoctor Global”

Knowledge Handbook of Pneumonia Prevention and Control for New Coronavirus Infection

Weiyi Internet General Hospital

Weiyi Tianjin Internet Hospital

January 2020

Table of Contents

Part I Pathogen characteristics

1. What is a coronavirus?

2.What are the physical and chemical properties of coronaviruses?

3. What are the coronaviruses that can infect humans?

4.What is pneumonia caused by a new coronavirus?

5.What are the clinical manifestations of patients infected with the new coronavirus?

6. Is there a vaccine against the new coronavirus?

7.How to define close contact with patients?

8.Why medical observation of close contacts for 14 days?

9. What if you are notified by the CDC that you are a close contact?

10. Can new coronavirus infections be treated?

11. What are the basic coping strategies for severe cases of new coronavirus infection?

Part two epidemic situation

12. What is the current development of the epidemic?

13. Why did so many confirmed cases increase in just a few days?

14. What is the key to preventing and controlling the epidemic?

15. What is the most effective way to prevent and control at present?

16.What is the source of new coronavirus infection?

17. Is the new coronavirus transmitted from person to person?

18. How can people get infected?

19. Will new coronaviruses mutate?

20. Will new coronavirus infections be as fierce as SARS?

Part III Prevention and Control Common Sense

21.What are the main surveillance measures for new coronavirus-infected pneumonia?

22.How to prevent infection by new coronavirus?

23. What are the special precautions when contacting animals?

24. Is it necessary to go to the hospital when symptoms such as fever and cough appear?

চাইনিজ ডাক্তারদের কাছ থেকে সরাসরি পরামর্শ  নিতে এখানে ক্লিক করুন

Part I Pathogen characteristics

1. what is a coronavirus?

Coronaviruses are a large class of viruses that are widespread in nature. It is currently the largest genome virus among ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses. The shape of the virus is similar to the crown and is named under electron microscope. Coronavirus only infects vertebrates, and is related to a variety of diseases in humans and animals, which can cause respiratory and digestive tract and nervous system diseases in humans and animals.

2.What are the physical and chemical properties of coronaviruses?

Coronavirus is sensitive to heat. Lipid solvents such as ether, 75% ethanol, chlorine-containing disinfectant, peracetic acid and chloroform can effectively inactivate the virus at 30 ° C for 56 minutes.

3. What are the coronaviruses that can infect humans?

So far, in addition to new coronaviruses, a total of six coronaviruses (HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, SARS-CoV, HCoV-NL63,

HCoV-HKU1 and MERS-CoV). Four of them are more common in the population and have lower pathogenicity, generally causing only minor respiratory symptoms similar to the common cold. The other two are the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) Coronavirus and MERS (Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome) Coronavirus.

4.What is pneumonia caused by a new coronavirus?

A new type of coronavirus-infected pneumonia was discovered in Wuhan, Hubei Province, central China in December 2019 and confirmed an acute respiratory infection caused by a new type of coronavirus. This new coronavirus is a new coronavirus strain that has never been found in humans before. The World Health Organization named the coronavirus 2019-nCoV, which is a new coronavirus.

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5. What are the clinical manifestations of patients infected with the new coronavirus?

Main symptoms are fever, fatigue, and dry cough. Nasal congestion and runny nose are rare. About half of the patients experienced dyspnea after one week. In severe cases, they progressed rapidly to acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, difficult to correct metabolic acidosis and coagulopathy. It is worth noting that in the course of severe and critically ill patients, there can be moderate to low fever, even without obvious fever. Some patients have mild onset symptoms and no fever. They usually recover after 1 week. Most patients have a good prognosis, and a few patients are critically ill and even die.

আরো পড়ুন:  স্কুল লেবেলের ইংরেজি লিখিত পরীক্ষার বিগত সালের সকল প্রশ্ন সমাধান পিডিএফ ডাউনলোড | NTRCA English Previous Written Questions PDF Download

6. Is there a vaccine against the new coronavirus?

There is no vaccine available for new diseases. Developing a new vaccine can take a considerable amount of time.

7.How to define close contact with patients?

Close contacts are those who live, study, work or have close contact with the case; medical personnel, family members or other people who have similar close contact with the case when they have not taken effective protective measures during the diagnosis, treatment, and visit of the case; The case is the same as other patients and escorts in the ward; people who are in the same transportation with the case and have close contact with the case; those who are assessed by the on-site investigators to be eligible after investigation.

8.Why medical observation of close contacts for 14 days?

With reference to the incubation period of diseases caused by other coronaviruses, the relevant information of the new coronavirus case and the current prevention and control practices, the medical observation period for close contacts was set to 14 days, and the close medical contacts were observed at home.

9. What if you are notified by the CDC that you are a close contact?

Make home medical observations as required. Don’t panic, don’t go out casually, do a good job of observing your physical condition, and regularly follow up with your doctor. If there are abnormal clinical manifestations such as fever and cough, report to the local disease prevention and control agency in time, under its guidance. Go to designated medical institutions for investigation, diagnosis and treatment.

10. Can new coronavirus infections be treated?

The World Health Organization has issued guidelines for clinical management of a suspected severe acute respiratory infection caused by a novel coronavirus infection. At present, there is no specific treatment method for the diseases caused by the new coronavirus. However, with the diagnosis and treatment program launched by the National Health Commission, some antiviral drugs may have certain effects. In addition, combined with the treatment experience and lessons of SARS, and taking full advantage of China’s unique medical system advantages, the use of integrated Chinese and Western medicine may have important value. In addition, assistive care for infected people can be very effective.

11. What are the basic coping strategies for severe cases of new coronavirus infection?

Pre-trial triage to identify and classify patients with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI); immediately implement correct infection prevention and control measures (IPC); early supportive treatment and monitoring; collection of clinical specimens for laboratory diagnosis; handling of hypoxic breathing Failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); management of septic shock; prevention of complications; antiviral treatment; special precautions for pregnant patients.

Part two epidemic situation

12. What is the current development of the epidemic?

Recently, pneumonia of a new type of coronavirus infection occurred in Wuhan, Hubei and other regions. As of 24:00 on January 30, 2020, the National Health and Health Commission has received a total of 9,692 confirmed cases, 31,572 cases of severe cases, and 213 death cases, accumulatively reported in 31 provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities) and the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. There were 171 cured cases and 15238 suspected cases. At present, a total of 1,13579 close contacts have been tracked (21 cases of reductions in Beijing). On the day, 4,201 people were released from medical observation, and a total of 102,427 people were receiving medical observation. A total of 28 confirmed cases were reported from Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan: 12 from the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, 7 from the Macao Special Administrative Region, and 9 from Taiwan.

আরো পড়ুন:  বিশ্বের বিভিন্ন দেশের আইনসভা বা পার্লামেন্টের নাম সাধারণ জ্ঞান (আন্তর্জাতিক বিষয়াবলী) –পিডিএফ ডাউনলোড

With the approval of the State Council, the National Health and Health Commission has incorporated pneumonitis infected with the new coronavirus into the Class B infectious diseases specified in the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases, and adopted measures for the prevention and control of Class A infectious diseases; Management of quarantine infectious diseases under the Quarantine Law.

13. Why did so many confirmed cases increase in just a few days?

Because there is a virus nucleic acid detection kit. Recently, relevant national scientific research institutes have rapidly developed virus nucleic acid detection kits. The nucleic acid detection kit can quickly determine whether a specific gene sequence exists in a sample of a case by PCR. In other words, the new coronavirus is equivalent to having an ID card, and the samples of the cases can be quickly judged by comparing them.

14. What is the key to preventing and controlling the epidemic?

The key to prevention is to prevent the emergence of super communicators. Reducing output in Wuhan is a very important aspect. Wuhan will have very strict screening and testing measures, especially temperature detection. It is not recommended to leave Wuhan if the temperature is high. In the early morning of January 23, 2020, Wuhan took measures to close the city, which is a crucial step for prevention and control.

15. What is the most effective way to prevent and control at present?

Early detection, early reporting, early diagnosis, early isolation, and early treatment are the most effective. Effective isolation and treatment of patients who have already been diagnosed is extremely important to reduce exposure.

16.What is the source of new coronavirus infection?

No new coronavirus source has been found. The gene sequence of the new coronavirus discovered this time is close to the SARS coronavirus, and the SARS coronavirus has been confirmed to originate from the coronavirus carried by wild animals (bats). Currently, most of the treated cases have exposure history of Wuhan “South China Seafood Market”. It also sells live wild animals, and both stall owners and customers have the opportunity to contact the coronavirus carried by wild animals.

17. Is the new coronavirus transmitted from person to person?

Human-to-human cases have been found in Wuhan and Guangdong Province. As of January 21, 15 medical staff in Wuhan had been infected, confirming that the epidemic could be transmitted from person to person.

18. How can people get infected?

On January 27, 2020, the “Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia of New Coronavirus Infection (Trial Version 4)” jointly issued by the General Office of the National Health and Health Commission and the Office of the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine pointed out that respiratory droplet transmission is the main The route of transmission can also be spread through contact.

19. Will new coronaviruses mutate?

The new coronavirus is a new strain of coronavirus that has never been found in humans before, and virus mutations still need to be closely monitored.

20. Will new coronaviruses be as fierce as SARS?

Studies have shown that the new coronavirus has homology with SARS with a similarity of about 70% and a similarity with MERS of about 40%. The new coronavirus is less infectious than SARS, but still has a strong affinity with human respiratory epithelial cells, suggesting that it has a certain ability to infect the human body.

Part III Prevention and Control Common Sense

21.What are the main surveillance measures for new coronavirus-infected pneumonia?

আরো পড়ুন:  ৪০তম থেকে ১০ তম বিসিএস প্রিলিমিনারি টেস্ট এর তথ্য প্রযুক্তি অংশের সকল প্রশ্ন সমাধান পিডিএফ ডাউনলোড করুন |All BCS ICT Question PDF

Medical institutions at all levels and at all levels should raise awareness of the diagnosis and reporting of pneumonitis cases of new coronavirus infection during the monitoring and routine diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia of new coronavirus infection, and should pay attention to cases of unexplained fever and cough. History of whereabouts or suspicious exposures, wildlife exposure, and close contact with similar cases within 14 days before onset.

22.How to prevent infection by new coronavirus?

(1) Prevention of respiratory infectious diseases in winter and spring

At present, it is in the season of high incidence of infectious diseases in winter and spring. Citizens should increase their awareness of hygiene and health, strengthen exercise, work regularly, and improve their immunity.

Pay attention to maintaining indoor air circulation, avoiding closed, airless public places and crowded places. Wear a mask when going out.

After going home, wash your hands and nose in time. If you have fever and other symptoms of respiratory infections, especially persistent fever, go to a medical institution in time.

(2) Wear a mask correctly

Wearing a mask is an effective means of blocking the spread of respiratory secretions. Choosing medical surgical mask can prevent respiratory diseases well. When the disposable medical mask is worn, the folded surface should be fully unfolded, and the mouth, nose, and jaw should be completely covered, and then the nose clip should be pressed to make the mask completely fit the face.

Wash your hands before wearing a mask, or avoid touching your hands with the inside of the mask during wearing the mask to reduce the possibility of the mask being contaminated. Make a clear distinction between the inside and outside of the mask, the top and bottom, the light side is inside, and the mouth and nose should be attached, and the dark side should be outward; the end of the metal strip (nose clip) is above the mask.

It should be replaced regularly, and it should not be worn reversely, let alone alternately.

(3) Wash your hands properly

Remember to wash your hands after eating and drinking, after going home, touching garbage, and touching the animals. When washing your hands, pay attention to washing your hands with running water and soap (soap), rubbing for at least 15 seconds

For the convenience of memorizing, the kneading step is simply summarized into a seven-character formula: “inside-outside-clamp-bow-big-stand-wrist”.

23. What are the special precautions when contacting animals?

Avoid contact with wild poultry, wild animals and their excreta and secretions, avoid buying live poultry and wild animals; avoid going to animal farms and slaughterhouses, live poultry animal trading markets or stalls, and wildlife habitats. You must take precautions when you travel, especially occupationally exposed people; avoid eating wild animals.

24. Is it necessary to go to the hospital when symptoms such as fever and cough appear?

Common colds, flu, acute upper respiratory infections, pharyngitis, bronchitis, and tonsillitis can all cause symptoms such as sore throat, cough, stuffy nose, runny nose, and sneezing. When the above symptoms appear, it is generally judged to be a common respiratory infection. The clinical manifestations of patients infected with the new coronavirus mainly include fever, fatigue, dry cough, and fewer upper respiratory symptoms such as nasal congestion and runny nose.

When symptoms such as fever and cough appear, and you cannot judge accurately, it is recommended to make a decision after online consultation through the Weiyi Internet General Hospital. At present, hospitals in some cities gather a large number of patients with respiratory diseases. If they go directly to the hospital for treatment, they will not only be able to effectively obtain useful information, but also easily cause cross infection.

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